Glossary of Terms
Study Procedures

The ultimate goal of the study was to determine if Ca(2+) and AMPK activity effect GLUT 4 protein. The results of this study show that during exercise GLUT 4 in muscle cells was increased by increases in cytosolic calcium levels as well as the activation of AMPK.  The transcription factors that are responsible for "making" GLUT 4 are also increased by these two chemicals.  The increases were found to be regulated by CAMK an inhibitor of calcium.   

            This is important for muscle metabolism and effects on diabetes.  The capacity for metabolism in muscle cells is enhanced with training because greater amount of GLUT 4 in the muscle cell is important to respond to stimuli.  Consequently more glucose is transported into the cell to be metabolized.  This GLUT 4 increase is an adaptive response to the body's greater need for energy.  Ultimately this results in more glucose, which means more energy for the cell to use.   

Our GLUT 4 Movie

            Inspired by Dr. Grime's high quality web site animations, this movie summarizes the process of GLUT 4 synthesis in an animation courtesy of Liz Hesselbacher.  Please note, you need QuickTime 6 to view this movie.

Click Here to view the movie


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Last updated: 11/29/02.