Glossary of Terms

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Frequently Used Terms

bulletATP
bulletAICAR
bulletAMPK
bulletBiogenesis
bulletCalmodulin
bulletChemiluminescence
bullet Constitutively
bullet Cytosolic
bullet Cytosol
bullet Dantrolene
bullet Enzyme
bullet Glucose
bulletGLUT 4
bullet Histone
bullet Hypoxia
bullet Ionomycin
bullet Ionophores
bullet KN93
bulletLyse
bulletMEF (2A & 2D)
bullet Myocyte
bullet Myotubes
bullet Myofibrils
bullet Kinase
bullet Transcription

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate (3 phosphates) is a nucleotide present in all cells and is an energy source for cell processes. This is also necessary in the synthesis of RNA. In energy processes ATP can be broken down into ADP, adenosine diphosphate (2 phosphates) or AMP, adenosine monophosphate (1 phosphate) releasing phosphate groups and usable energy in the cell.

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AICAR

A chemical used in this research to stimulate the AMPK and consequently the GLUT 4 transport within the cell

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AMPK

The activated protein Kinase, which is an enzyme suspected to be responsible for increases in GLUT 4 transport inside a cell.

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Biogenesis

The theory that living things come from other living things.

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Calmodulin

A calcium binding protein.

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Chemiluminescence

The light that is produced as a reaction takes place.

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Constitutively

Always made by a cell under any conditions.

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Cytosolic

Within the cytosol or relating to it.

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Cytosol

The part of the cytoplasm of a cell that is fluid.

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Dantrolene

A chemical that inhibits calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

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Enzyme

Molecule of protein that makes chemical reactions work better and is not used.

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Glucose

A molecule of sugar used for energy within the cell.

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GLUT 4

The carrier protein that brings glucose into the cell.

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Histone

Protein in the nuclei of eukaryotic cells that modify DNA for replication.

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Hypoxia

Reduced oxygen to tissue.

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Ionomycin

An ionophore for calcium commonly used to determine the different roles of calcium within cells.

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Ionophores

Chemical agents that increase the ability of certain ions to enter cells through membranes.

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KN93

Ca2+ / calmodulin dependent kinase II inhibitor.

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Lyse

Break up or disintegrate.

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MEF (2A and 2D)

Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2. A GLUT 4 transcription factor, responsible for creating GLUT 4 within the cell.

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Myocyte

A muscle cell.

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Myotubes

Long cells with three or more nuclei that have some myofibrils.

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Myofibrils

Composed of many microfilaments, they are slender threads in muscle fibers.

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Kinase

An enzyme that is used by cells to catalyze or make the reaction happen, that transfers phosphates from ATP.

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Transcription

Synthesizing RNA.

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Last updated: 11/29/02.