Allele: One member of a pair or series of genes that occupy a specific position on a specific chromosome.
Amino acids: An organic compound containing an amino group (NH2), a carboxylic acid group (COOH), and any of various side groups, and that link together by peptide bonds to form proteins or that function as chemical messengers and as intermediates in metabolism.
Artificial Selection: Human intervention in animal or plant reproduction to ensure that certain desirable traits are represented in successive generations
Base pair: The pair of nitrogenous bases that connects the complementary strands of DNA. The base pairs are adenine-thymine and guanine-cytosine in DNA, and adenine-uracil and guanine-cytosine in RNA.
Clone: To make multiple identical copies of DNA or an organism.
DNA: The molecule that carries genetic information in all living systems. The DNA molecule is formed in the shape of a double helix from a great number of smaller molecules called nucleotides. The workings of the DNA molecule provide the most fundamental explanation of the laws of genetics.
Genotype: The genetic makeup, as distinguished from the physical appearance, of an organism or a group of organisms.
Exon: A sequence of DNA that codes information for protein synthesis.
Genetic map: A chromosome map of a species or experimental population that shows the position of its known genes and/or markers relative to each other, rather than as specific physical points on each chromosome.
Genome: An organism's genetic material.
Mutation: Changes to the genetic material that can be caused by copying errors in the genetic material during cell division and by exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses.
Natural selection: The process in nature by which, according to Darwin's theory of evolution, only the organisms best adapted to their environment tend to survive and transmit their genetic characteristics in increasing numbers to succeeding generations while those less adapted tend to be eliminated.
Nucleotides: Any of various compounds consisting of a nucleoside combined with a phosphate group and forming the basic constituent of DNA and RNA.
Phenotype: All the observable characteristics of an organism, such as shape, size, color, and behavior, that result from the interaction of its genotype with the environment.
Promoter: A DNA sequence that enables a gene to be transcribed.
RNA: A nucleic acid that transmits messages in the DNA to other elements in the cell.